References Consulted

The main ecological literature used in writing the species descriptions includes the following major botanical works. These sources were consulted regularly and for almost every species:

  • Hultén, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories: a manual of the vascular plants. Stanford University Press.
  • Cody, W.J. 2000. Flora of the Yukon Territory. NRC Research Press.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Flora of North America. Oxford University Press on Demand; 1993+.
  • Boggs K., A. Garibaldi, J.L. Stevens, T. Helt, and J. Grunblatt. 2001. Denali National Park and Preserve Landcover Mapping Project, Volume 2: Landcover Classes and Plant Associations. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/DENA/NRTR—2001/002. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

The following species group references were used in the same way as major works above, except they covered only particular taxonomic groups:

  • Argus, G.W. 2004. A guide to the identification of Salix (willows) in Alaska, the Yukon Territory and adjacent regions.
  • Viereck, L.A. and E.L. Little, Jr. 2007. Alaska trees and shrubs, 2nd edition. University of Alaska Press: Fairbanks, AK.
  • Skinner Q.D., S.J. Wright, R.J. Henszey, J.L. Henszey, and S.K. Wyman. 2012. A field guide to Alaska grasses. Education Resources Publishing: Cumming, GA.
  • Tande G.F. and R. Lipkin. 2003. Wetland sedges of Alaska. Alaska Natural Heritage Program, Environment and Natural Resources Institute, University of Alaska Anchorage.
  • Collet, D.M. 2004. Willows of interior Alaska. US Fish and Wildlife Service: Anchorage, AK.

Regional floras and other botanical atlas projects proved useful in compiling species distributions:

  • Kartesz, J.T. (Editor) 2015. The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). North American Plant Atlas. Chapel Hill, N.C. http://bonap.net/napa.
  • USDA, NRCS. 2016. The PLANTS Database (13 May 2016). National Plant Data Team: Greensboro, NC. http://plants.usda.gov.
  • Klinkenberg, B. (Editor) 2013. E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. http://ibis.geog.ubc.ca/biodiversity/eflora/.
  • Elven, R., D.F. Murray, V.Y. Razzhivin, and B.A. Yurtsev, 2011. Annotated checklist of the Panarctic Flora (PAF): Vascular plants version 1.0. https://nhm2. uio. no/paf/.
  • Aiken S.G., M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, L.J. Gillespie, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, A.K. Brysting, and H. Solstad. 1999 onwards. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. Version: 29th April 2003. http://www.mun.ca/biology/delta/arcticf/.
  • Arctos Collaborative Collection Management Solution. http://arctos.database.museum/.
  • Central Yukon Species Inventory Project. http://www.flora.dempstercountry.org/.
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://ww.itis.gov/.
  • Flora of China. http://efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2.
  • The Flora of Svalbard. http://svalbardflora.no/.
  • New England Wildflower Society. https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/.

In researching the relationship between plant species and insects, diseases, and pathogens, the following resources were indispensable:

  • Holsten, E.H., P.E. Hennon, L.M. Trummer, and M. Schultz. 2001. Insects and Diseases of Alaskan Forests. USDA Forest Service, Alaska Region.
  • Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
  • Glawe, D.A. Pacific Northwest Fungi Database. Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA. http://pnwfungi.wsu.edu/.
  • Arthur, J.F. 1934. Manual of the rusts in United States and Canada. Purdue Research Foundation.
  • Arora, D. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified. 2nd edition. Ten Speed Press: Berkeley, CA.
  • Butterflies and Moths of North America. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/.
  • Scott, J.A. 1986. The butterflies of North America: A natural history and field guide. Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA.

We gathered ethnobotanical information from these regional and national resources:

  • Garibaldi, A. 1999. Medicinal flora of the Alaska Natives: a compilation of knowledge from literary sources of Aleut, Alutiiq, Athabascan, Eyak, Haida, Inupiat, Tlingit, Tsimshian, and Yupik traditional healing methods using plants. Alaska Natural Heritage Program. University of Alaska Anchorage.
  • Kari, P.R. 1995. Tanaina Plantlore, Dena’ina K’et’una. Alaska Native Language Center with Alaska Natural History Association and National Park Service.
  • Plants for a Future. http://www.pfaf.org/.

Occasionally in writing species descriptions, specific research studies provided novel information useful in interpreting the species characteristics:

  • Ågren, J. 1987. Intersexual differences in phenology and damage by herbivores and pathogens in dioecious Rubus chamaemorus L. Oecologia 72: 161-169.
  • Ågren, J., Elmqvist, T., and A. Tunlid. 1986. Pollination by deceit, floral sex ratios and seed set in dioecious Rubus chamaemorus L. Oecologia 70: 332-338.
  • Allbright, M. 2004. Appendix C—Detailed propagation methods for beargrass, heather, huckleberry and partridgefoot. In Wilderness and Backcountry Site Restoration Guide , L. Therrell, et al. http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/pdfpubs/pdf06232815/pdf06232815dpi72pt19.pdf
  • Alsos, I.G., Spjelkavik, S., and T. Engelskjøn. 2003. Seed bank size and composition of Betula nana, Vaccinium uliginosum, and Campanula rotundifolia habitats in Svalbard and northern Norway. Canadian Journal of Botany 81: 220-231.
  • Amen, R.D. 1966. The extent and role of seed dormancy in alpine plants. The Quarterly Review of Biology 41: 271–281.
  • Andersson S. 1991. Floral display and pollination success in Achillea ptarmica (Asteraceae). Holarctic Ecology 14:186–191.
  • Arasu, N.T. 1970. Self-incompatibility in Ribes. Euphytica 19: 373–378.
  • Argue, C.L. 2011. The pollination biology of North American orchids: Volumes 1-2: North of Florida and Mexico. Springer-Verlag.
  • Armbruster, W.S., and A.D. McGuire. 1991. Experimental assessment of reproductive interactions between sympatric Aster and Erigeron (Asteraceae) in interior Alaska. American Journal of Botany 1449-1457.
  • Asker S. 1970. Apomictic biotypes in Potentilla intermedia and P. norvegica. Hereditas 66: 101-7.
  • Bänziger, H., H. Sun, Y.B. Luo. 2005. Pollination of a slippery lady slipper orchid in south-west China: Cypripedium guttatum (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 148: 251–264.
  • Barrett, S.C.H., and K. Helenurm. 1987. The reproductive biology of forest herbs. I. Breeding systems and pollination. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 2036–2046.
  • Beatty G.E, P.M. McEvoy, O. Sweeney, and J. Provan. 2008. Range-edge effects promote clonal growth in peripheral populations of the one-sided wintergreen (Orthilia secunda). Diversity and Distributions, 14, 546–555.
  • Bertin, R.I. 2007. Sex allocation in Carex (Cyperaceae): effects of light, water, and nutrients. Botany 85: 377-384.
  • Bocher, T.W. 1954. Experimental studies in the Arabis holboellii complex. Svenk Bot.48: 31-45.
  • Borkent, C.J. 2004. The association of fly pollination and the dioecious breeding system in flowering plants: an empirical examination (Doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary).
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  • Boyden, T.C. 1982. The pollination biology of Calypso bulbosa var. americana ( Orchidaceae): initial deception of bumblebee visitors. Oecologia 55:178–184.
  • Brown, K.R., Zobel, D.B., and J.C. Zasada. 1988. Seed dispersal, seedling emergence, and early survival of Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch in the Tanana Valley, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18: 306-314.
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  • Burger, A.E. 1987. Fruiting and frugivory of Cornus canadensis in boreal forest in Newfoundland. Oikos 49: 3–10.
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    near Jasper, Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist 125(1): 47–54.
  • Catling, P.M. 1982. Breeding systems of northeastern North American Spiranthes (Orchidaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 60: 3017–3039.
  • Catling, P.M. 1983. Autogamy in eastern Canadian Orchidaceae: a review of current knowledge and some new observations. Naturaliste Canadien 110: 37–53.
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  • Crane, M.F. 1991. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. In: Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/.
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